Atmosphere and change:
Describe the functioning of the atmospheric system in terms of the energy balance between solar and long wave radiation. Explain the changes in this balance due to external forcings (changes in solar radiation, changes in the albedo of the atmosphere and changes in the longwave radiation returned to space).
Discuss the causes and environmental consequences of global climate change.
Soil and change:
Explain the causes of soil degradation. Discuss the environmental and socio‑economic consequences of this process, together with management strategies.
Water and change:
Identify the ways in which water is utilized at the regional scale. Examine the environmental and human factors affecting patterns and trends in physical water scarcity and economic water scarcity. Examine the factors affecting access to safe drinking water.
Biodiversity and change:
Explain the concept and importance of biodiversity in tropical rainforests. Examine the causes and consequences of reduced biodiversity in this biome.